The translation reader (formerly kit) includes articles contributed by STC members. Some contributors have worked with translators extensively. Other contributors are affiliated with translation agencies. The project manager is Charlene Nagy, cnagy@NCS-pubs.com.
The reader now includes all the articles on translation and machine translation posted on this site. Additional resources on translation are listed in the SIG Bibliography. There is a favorable review of the translation kit on this page.
Articles in the Translation Reader
The following articles in PDF format are included in the kit. All are small files. New articles will be posted. For additional information on translation, consult the ITC SIG Resource List and the ITC SIG STC Localization Reader.
Benchmarking translation agencies (added October 2001)
CE Marking, Translations, and the IVD Directive (IVDD 98/79/EC) (pdf), by John Balchunas. Posted February 2003.
“Editing Translated HTML Files,” by Becky Johnston in Intercom, November 2004.
http://www.stc.org/intercom/pdfs/2004/2004011_17-20.pdf (STC members only). Posted July 2005.
Evaluation of an XML-based Content Management System in the translation process. by Peter Argondizzo. Posted May 2005.
Evaluation of machine translation, summarized by Ann L. Wiley. Posted July 2001.
How to “proof” a translation, by Roger Ribert. Posted February 2005.
Labeling and translation requirements in different countries. Summarized from the ITC SIG list with additional research. Posted December 2005.
Machine Translation for the Technical Communicator, by Sandra Bologna, Translation Project Manager, WTB Language Group, Windsor, Ontario. Reprinted from the June 2005 newsletter of the Alberta Chapter STC, in Connection, newsletter of the Silicon Valley Chapter STC, Part 1, August, 2005. Part 2, September 2005. Part 3, October 2005. Posted 2005.
A machine translation overview is posted at
www.stc-nne.org/Noreaster/march04/feature.htm. This is part one in a series on machine translation, appearing in the newsletter of the Northern New England Chapter of STC. Part 2 on translation memory is posted at
www.stc-nne.org/Noreaster/may04/feature.htm. Posted August 2004.
Machine translation primer by Carolyn Luttrell in Global Talk Volume 2 Number 1 Spring 2001.
Managing product translation (.pdf), by Patricia Carmel. Posted March 2003.
Reducing translation costs, by John Brewer, Member, Huntsville North Alabama chapter. Posted December, 2005.
Translation management: in-house or outsourced (added January 2002)
Where writing and translation meet (.pdf), by Deb Kramasz. Posted March 2003.
Review of the Translation Kit (now Reader)
Translator Chris Durban reported on the International Technical Communication SIG Translation Kit in her column “Onionskin,” in the October 2001 issue of ITI Bulletin published by the United Kingdom’s Institute of Translation and Interpreting. The text is reprinted here with permission.
“The Society for Technical Communication counts 25,000 members—technical writers, editors, graphic designers, videographers, multimedia artists, Web and Intranet page information designers, translators and other whose work involves making technical information available to those who need it.
Its special interest group (SIG) on international technical communication recently launched an online Translation Kit. “The kit was started in response to the many inquiries the SIG receives relative to translation,” says Carol Luttrell. All inquiries on international technical communication received by the group are channeled to her, in her capacity as SIG manager. “The questions run the gamut,” she told the Onionskin. “If asked something I don’t know, I find someone who can answer it, then ask that person to respond and copy me on the response to make sure the loop is closed.” Luttrell receives two or three questions a month. Since many cover the same ground, some basic guidelines seemed to be in order—whence the kit.
The project was launched in June 2000, with articles solicited through the group’s newsletter. Charlene Nagy coordinated contributions, which (are) downloadable articles. Most are aimed at non-linguists or inexperienced translation buyers. Worth a look at https://www.stcsig.org/itc/prtrans.htm.”
ITC SIG Localization Reader
The International Technical Communication Special Interest Group (ITC SIG) of STC is following up the Translation Reader with this Localization Reader, presenting articles going beyond translation to cover the entire localization process. The Localization Reader now contains all the articles posted on this site on localization. Items without a date were posted in April 2005.
Additional resourcs are listed below, with a call for additional articles.
Articles in the Localization Reader
Overview of localization by the ITC SIG of STC
The May/June 2002 issue of Devil Mountain Views, online newsletter of the East Bay Chapter of STC, has articles on localization and working across cultures. www.ebstc.org/newsletter/0205/0205.html. Posted May 2002.
Bug Reporting in Localization Projects by Edward Watts, Retek
Designing for a Non-English Audience, by Felicia Bratu, WTB Language Group Inc. Posted August, 2005.
Effective update management in the localization process (.pdf), by Tom Shapiro. Posted May 2003.
Is Localization of a Product Essential to Ensure Usability and Customer Satisfaction? by David Dick, Editor, Usability Interface. February 2005 issue. Posted March 2005.
Localization–the business value. Current trends column, Sita Bhatt, editor. Indus newsletter of the India Chapter of STC. January/February 2005. http://stc-india.org/indus/index.htm. Follow the link for the archives if needed. Posted March 2005.
Managing Localization Projects: Think Like a Writer to Save Time and Improve Quality by Deb Kramasz, Prisma International
Managing multiple language documents, summarized from the ITC SIG list, October, 2005.
Working with International Partners in Localization Projects by Carlos Evia, Virginia Tech
XML and localization (.pdf slides), by Scott Bass. Posted May 2003.
Additional resources in localization
Additional information resources on localization are listed in the SIG Bibliography.
You will find the Localization Reader from the Localisation Resource Centre in Ireland to be of interest. You can download it in PDF form free of charge at http://www.localisation.ie/publications/reader/2004/index.htm.
Multilingual Computing makes a number of guides available on www.multilingual.com. Scroll down to find the Guide to Localization published in 2003.
Additional articles are welcome
The following are guidelines for submitters.
Industries and information products: Write about the area(s) you know best. We welcome articles on localization in life sciences, the automotive industry, manufacturing, software, Web design and development, e-learning, online help, content management, marketing, and any other area in business and technical communication.
Length: For optimal readability, we would like to keep articles to 500 to 1000 words. If your topic demands more, please consider breaking up your article.
Format: Articles will be published in HTML but please submit in MS Word (.doc) or .rtf.
Due date: Articles are added to the Localization Reader continually.
Graphics, screenshots, diagrams, and flowcharts when pertinent will break up the text in a manner that is most welcome.
Existing articles: We will link to but not “reprint” material already available on the World Wide Web. We will reprint with permission material published elsewhere that is not available on the Web.
Membership in the ITC SIG of STC and STC: Preference is given to publishing the work of SIG members and STC members, although the work of non-members will be published when it is of keen interest to the members of the International Technical Communication SIG of STC.
Submit articles to firstname.lastname@example.org.
Ideas for articles the ITC SIG would like to add
These ideas were developed by the initial project leader, John White (1-for-All, Inc.), email@example.com.
Localization (sometimes called L10n) is a process, and a localization project follows a timeline.
2-Interface to translators
3-Managing the project
As the Localization Reader grows, we want to include articles that cover all the phases of localization. Considerations include those described here.
Five things you had better do, and five things you had better not do in getting your documentation localized (similar to “Ten things to remember when translating documents” in translation kit).
Project ownership: Can I squeeze this in with everything else I’m doing, or should somebody own the project outright? Identify thresholds beyond which a dedicated project manager is needed. Also, “draw a line in the sand” as to how far your expertise will go in the overall project; if you’re a documentation specialist, you can’t be expected to enable code or program firmware.
2-Interface to translators
How to request and evaluate bids: How can I find out about vendors? Isn’t this all a commodity business? Why are they (not) charging me for project management? To whom can I talk besides the salesperson? What should I ask for in the proposal that nobody ever thinks to ask for?
Localization kit: What goes into it? How do I prepare it? How do I transmit it? Do I need to test it before I hand it off? (Yes.) How? (Use dummy text.) Examples are welcome.
When to hand off the kit: In many localization (“L10n”) projects, the writers’ main quandary has been that of handing off frozen text soon enough to make a difference in time-to-overseas-market, yet late enough to include the developers’ incessant changes.
3-Managing the projects
Day-to-day: Dealing with all of the questions that the translators pose, and ensuring that there are fewer of them next time.
Bug reports: In most cases, moving comments and changes between reviewers and translators is tough. Some examples of how to do it successfully, and how not to do it.
A good translation and being sure you get one: Everybody wants a good translation, and the key to getting one is to put the right person on the hook for reviewing it, with a good, workable process for conveying changes to the translators.
Getting ready for the next one: Do something with all of those notes you’ve been taking throughout this process.
Feature articles and links to features on other STC web sites
Cross-cultural and language issues
The May/June 2002 issue of Devil Mountain Views, online newsletter of the East Bay Chapter STC, has articles on localization and working across cultures. www.ebstc.org/newsletter/0205/0205.html. Posted May 2002.
Communicating with nonnative speakers, by Bill Gruener. Posted September 2003.
Cultural and editorial issues in international projects, by Carolyn Luttrell. Posted July 2001.
Fundamental patterns of cultural differences (.pdf), by Elaine Winters. Posted May 2003.
Marcom across borders: a dangerous business, by Werner deColfmaker. Impact newsletter of the Marcom SIG of STC, Fall/Winter 2003/2004, https://www.stcsig.org/mc/impact/impact.html and download the issue in PDF.
Working across cultures, formerly Discussion page two. Posted July 2001.
Country-and region-specific issues
Christine Borgman on online communication and change in Central and Eastern Europe (pdf), by Kirk St. Amant. Posted January 2002.
Technical communication in Ukraine (pdf), by Kirk St. Amant. Posted October 2001.
Crossing international waters (.pdf) by Nancy A. Codoner. Posted December 2003.
International online workplace (.pdf) by Kirk St. Amant. Posted November 2002.
International virtual office factors, by Jeff Staples. Posted April 2005.
International virtual office ideas, by Jeff Stapes. Posted April 2005.
Making contact in an online age, by Kirk St. Amant. Posted July 2001.
Management of international projects, by Carolyn Luttrell. Posted July 2001.
Problems of online identity, by Kirk St. Amant. Posted July 2001.
Find extensive links to resources on the topic of “offshoring” on www.stc-siliconvalley.org/ In the left navigation, click More resources > Offshoring. Posted September 2004.
Writing for an international audience
Creating documentation for an international audience (.pdf) by Gary Michael Smith. Posted March 2003.
Developing web sites that can be localized, by Charlene Nagy. Posted July 2001.
Questions to consider in designing international websites (pdf), by Kirk St. Amant. Posted October 2001.
ITC SIG Resource List
The resource list includes all the resources identified in the Global Talk newsletter, Spring 2000 through Spring 2001, and many additional resources. Items added after July, 2001 are designated as “added,” with the month and the year. Please send contributions to firstname.lastname@example.org.
Association of Teachers of Technical Writing (ATTW). Resources in Technical Communication. Accessible through www.google.com, June 2001.
Internationalization and Localization Resource List of Usability SIG STC. https://www.stcsig.org/usability/topics/international.html. Last updated December 2002. Posted March 2005.
Nancy Hoft Consulting bibliography: sources in international technical communication, an annotated bibliography. www.world-ready.com.
Nancy Hoft Consulting reading on the web (internet sites) about international issues. www.world-ready.com.
Open Internet Lexicon. http://www.openinternetlexicon.com/. Posted December 2005.
Reading list on cross cultural communication and experiences. http://www.argotrans.com/english/resources/reading.html. Posted February 2005.
International User Interfaces, edited by Elisa del Galdo and Jakob Nielsen. John Wiley, 1996. Added August 2001.
International Dimensions of Technical Communication, edited by Deborah C. Andrews. STC, 1996. Added August 2001.
International Technical Communication, by Nancy Hoft. John Wiley, 1995. Added August 2001.
Managing Global Communication in Science and Technology, edited by Peter Hager and H.J. Scheiber. John Wiley, 1999. Added August 2001.
MultiLingual Computing and Technology. Multilingual Computing Inc., 319 First Avenue, Sandpoint, Idaho 83864 USA, 208-263-8178. Fax 208-263-6310. email@example.com. Information from Fred Klein, August 2000.
MultiLingual Computing, Inc. Resource Directory & Editorial Index. Beginning 2003. www.multilingual.com/annualDirectory. Added February 2003.
Technical Communication in the Global Community, by Deborah C. Andrews. Prentice Hall, 1998. Added August 2001.
Technical Communication Quarterly, Volume 7 Number 3, Summer 1998, is devoted to international communication. Association of Teachers of Technical Writing. Added August 2001.
TC-FORUM (Technical Communicator’s Forum) newsletter. Subscribe on www.intecom.org. Information from Peter Sandford, March 2001.
Designing Web Usability, by Jakob Nielsen. New Riders, 2001. Added October 2001.
Discussion lists on communication
TCF list server. Subscribe on www.intecom.org. Information from Peter Sandford, March 2001.
Websites on communication
MultiLingual Computing maintains a web site with well-researched links, including job openings and current books in language technology (sold through the web site), upcoming conferences, and links to web resources. www.multilingual.com. Information from Fred Klein, September 2000.
Jukka Korpela’s website “IT and Communication” has many useful links including Unicode information listed in the Unicode section. www.cs.tut.fi/~jkorpela/indexen.html. Posted March 2003.
For more information please refer to the articles on international project management by Carolyn Luttrell.
Craighead.com is a subscription cultural service offering information on relocating to other countries. Information from Carolyn Luttrell, December 2001.
InterCultural Press focuses exclusively on intercultural books. 374 Route 1, Yarmouth, ME 04096-6746, 207-846-5168. www.interculturalpress.com. Information from Carolyn Luttrell, December 2000.
Reading list on cross cultural communication and experiences. http://www.argotrans.com/english/resources/reading.html. Posted February 2005.
SIETAR International Journal: A Professional Journal Addressing Intercultural Education, Training and Research. www.sietarinternational.org/ and www.sietarusa.org. Information from John Osborne, March 2001.
Basic Concepts of Intercultural Communication, edited by Milton J. Bennett. Intercultural Press, 1998. Information from Carolyn Luttrell. Added August 2001.
A Common Core: Thais and Americans, by John Paul Fieg. Intercultural Press, 1989. Information from Carolyn Luttrell. Added August 2001.
Corporate Cultures, by Terrence E. Deal and Allen A. Kennedy. Addison-Wesley, 1984. Information from Carolyn Luttrell. Added August 2001.
Cultural Issues in Business Communication, by Rob Sellin and Elaine Winters. Program Facilitating and Consulting, 2000. Ordering information: http://www.bena.com/ewinters/xculture.html.
Culture, Communication and Conflict, edited by Gary Weaver. Simon and Schuster, 1998. Information from Carolyn Luttrell. Added August 2001.
Doing Business Internationally, by Terence Brake and Danielle Walker. Princeton Training Press, 1995. Information from Carolyn Luttrell. Added August 2001.
Encountering the Chinese, by Hu Wenzhong and Cornelius L. Grove. Intercultural Press, 1999. Information from Carolyn Luttrell. Added August 2001.
EuroManagers and Martians, by Richard Hall. Europublic, SA/NV 1998. Information from Carolyn Luttrell. Added Summer 2001.
A Fair Go for All: Australian and American Interactions, Intercultural Press, 1991. Information from Carolyn Luttrell. Added August 2001.
French or Foe, by Polly Platt. Culture Crossings, 1998. Information from Carolyn Luttrell. Added August 2001.
The Global Advantage, by Michael J. Marquardt. Gulf Publishing Company, 1999. Information from Carolyn Luttrell. Added August 2001.
Going East or West? A Handbook for American and Chinese Business Travelers, by Yuzeng Liu and Terri Morgan. Overland Park, KS: Wudang Research Associates, 2001. Added by editor, August 2001.
Hofstede, Geert, Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind. McGraw-Hill, 1991 – painful reading in some places but really captured core differences between cultures, such as power distance, individualism/collectivism, masculine/feminine, uncertainty avoidance, and virtue/truth. Added January 2006.
Lewis, Richard D., When Cultures Collide. Nicholas Brealey Publishing, 1999 (ISBN 1-85788-087-0) – provides an overview of cultures broken down by country (44 total). Added January 2006.
Management in Two Cultures: Bridging the Gap Between U.S. and Mexican Managers. Intercultural Press, 1995. Information from Carolyn Luttrell. Added August 2001.
Transcending Stereotypes: Discovering Japanese Culture and Education, edited by Barbara Finkelstein, Joseph J. Tobin, and Anne E. Imamura. Intercultural Press, 1991. Information from Carolyn Luttrell. Added August 2001.
Understanding Cultural Differences, by Edward T. Hall and Mildred Reed. Intercultural Press, 1989. Information from Carolyn Luttrell. Added Summer 2001.
With Respect to the Japanese, by John C. Condon. Intercultural Press, 1984. Information from Carolyn Luttrell. Added August 2001.
Ball, Don; McCulloch, Wendell. International Business: The Challenge of Global Competition. 7th ed. Irwin/McGraw-Hill, 1999. Added January 2006.
Hodge, Sheida. Global Smarts: The Art of Communicating and Deal Making Anywhere in the World. John Wiley, 2000. Added January 2006.
Pearce, John A. Robinson, Richard B. Strategic Management: Formulation, Implementation, and Control. 7th ed. McGraw Hill, 2000. Added January 2006.
Rockwell, Browning. Using the Web to Compete in a Global Marketplace. John Wiley, 1995. Added January 2006.
Sonnderegger, Paul. The Forrester Report: The Global User Experience. Forrester Research, March 2001. Added January 2006.
International business culture
Axtell, Roger. Gestures. The DO’s and TABOOs of Body Language Around the World. [Rev. and expanded ed.] John Wiley & Sons, 1998. Added January 2006.
Boden, Angelena. The Cultural Gaffes Pocketbook. Reprinted. Management Pocketbooks, 1999. Added January 2006.
Japan Travel Bureau. Salaryman in Japan. [Japan in Your Pocket Series, Vol. 8]. Nippan Books, 1987. Added January 2006.
Morrison, Terri; Conaway, Wayne A., et al. Kiss, Bow, or Shake Hands. How to Do Business in Sixty Countries. Adams Media Corporation, 1994. Added January 2006.
Morrison, Terri; Conaway, Wayne A., et al. Dun & Bradstreet’s Guide to Doing Business Around the World. Prentice Hall, 1997. Added January 2006.
Rowland, Diana. Japanese Business Etiquette: A Practical Guide to Success with the Japanese. [Updated and revised 2nd ed.]. Warner Books, 1993 Added January 2006.
Sabath, Ann Marie. International Business Etiquette. Asia & The Pacific Rim: What You Need To Know To Conduct Business Abroad with Charm and Savvy. Career Press, 1999. Added January 2006.
Sabath, Ann Marie. International Business Etiquette. Europe: What You Need To Know To Conduct Business Abroad with Charm and Savvy. Career Press, 1999. Added January 2006.
Seligman, Scott D. Chinese Business Etiquette. A guide to protocol, manners, and culture in the People’s Republic of China. Warner Books, 1999. Added January 2006.
Shelley, Rex. Culture Shock! Japan: A Guide to Customs and Etiquette. Rev. ed. Kuperard, 1996. Added January 2006.
Apple Computer. Guide to Macintosh Software Localization. Apple Computer, Inc., 1992. Added January 2006.
Bbi Dictionary of English Word Combinations by Evelyn Benson and others, 1997, tells which prepositions are used with particular nouns or verbs, what types of direct objects, infinitives, noun clauses, and prepositional phrases each verb can take, as well as which nouns go with particular verbs and vice versa. Source: Post on STC Technical Editing SIG email list by John Kohl, November 20, 2002. Added November 2002.
Bishop, Mark. How to Build a Successful International Web Site. Coriolis Group, 1998. Added January 2006.
The Cambridge Australian English Style Guide. Cambridge University Press, 1995. Added October 2002.
The Canadian Issues SIG of STC has a list of style manuals for Canadian English at www.stcsig.org/canadian/Links.htm. Added November 2002.
CP (Canadian Press) Stylebook. 12th ed. For information on availability, visit www.cp.org/english/hp.htm. Added November 2002.
The Canadian Style: A Guide to Writing and Editing. Dundurn Press Limited in cooperation with Public Works and Government Services Canada Translation Bureau. Date? Added November 2002.
The Collins COBUILD “Bank of English” at http://titania.cobuild.collins.co.uk/boe_info.html shows how particular words or phrases are used, at least in spoken language. Specify American or British usage if that restriction is desired. Added November 2002.
Editing Canadian English. Editors Association of Canada.
Macfarlane Walter & Ross, 2000. www.editors.ca/pubs/pubs.htm#editing. Added November 2002.
Esselink, Bert. A Practical Guide to Localization. [Rev. ed. of A Practical Guide to Software Localization.] John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2000. Added January 2006.
IBM. National Language Design Guide Volume 2, National Language Support Reference Manual. 4th ed. International Business Machines Corporation, 1994. Added January 2006.
www.ilovelanguages.com/ is a comprehensive listing of language-oriented references including online translation tools, Added February 2003.
Kano, Nadine. Developing International Software for Windows 95 and Windows NT. Microsoft Press, 1995. Added January 2006.
Language and Documentation is an independent bimonthly magazine for both scientists and professionals. firstname.lastname@example.org. Source: T News International, issue number 24, 2000. Information from Fred Klein, March 2000.
Language International magazine. www.language-international.com. Sponsored by the Localization Industry Standards Association (LISA). Source: Language International. Information from Fred Klein. Added Summer 2001.
The new language in International Business–Simplified English. Published by Tedopres. Find information about this book at www.tedopres.com. Added March 2005.
Lionbridge Technologies. Master Series: Developing and Managing Global Web Sites. [Workbook]. Lionbridge Technologies, 2000. Added January 2006.
Sprung, Robert C. [Ed.]. Translating Into Success: Cutting-edge strategies for going multilingual in a global age. American Translators Association Scholarly Monograph Series, Volume XI 2000. John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2000. Added January 2006.
The Whole World Language Catalog; AUDIO FORUM. email@example.com. Source: Audioforum. Information from Fred Klein. Added August 2001.
Words into Type, 3rd ed., Prentice Hall, 1974 has a section on use of the correct preposition in various expressions. Source: posts on the STC Technical Editing SIG email list, November 20, 2002. Added November 2002.
Localization and internationalization
Pierre Cadieux has published two articles that report consensus on definitions of the terms globalization, internationalization, localization, and translation. The first is co-authored with Bert Esselink, author of “A practical Guide to Localization” and chief editor of Language International Magazine: http://lisa.org/archive_domain/newsletters/2002/1.5/index.html. The second is at http://www.i18n.ca/GenericInternationalization.htm. Added July 2002.
Global 360 Journal published monthly by email by Global 360, a consulting firm in Boston. Provides strategies and methods for software development organizations in global markets, with articles for product management, development, documentation and QA. Articles have practical guidance on software internationalization and localization. Free subscriptions: www.global360.com. Added May 2002.
Globalization Insider Newsletter
www.lisa.org/archive_domain/newsletters/2002/2.5/. Added June 2002.
Guide to Macintosh Software Localization. Addison Wesley, 1992. Information from Carolyn Luttrell. Added August 2001.
Internationalization: Developing Software for Global Markets, by Tuoc V. Luong, James Lok, David Taylor and Kevin Driscoll. John Wiley, 1995. Added August 2001.
The Localization Industry Primer from the Localization Industry Standards Association, www.lisa.org. Information from a non-STC colleague, via email, December 2001.
Localization Reader 2004. Localisation Resource Centre. Download the PDF file free of charge at http://www.localisation.ie/publications/reader/2004/index.htm. Added April 2005.
www.LocalisationWorks.com is a free membership site with news, events, discussions, an online store, listings of vendors, and job listings. Source: Language Tech Net News, December 6, 2001, available by email to subscribers of MultiLingual Computing and Technology, www.multilingual.com. Added January 2002.
Microsoft Global Development and Computing Portal.
http://www.microsoft.com/globaldev. Added August 2005.
Practical Guide to Software Localization, by Bert Esselink. Benjamins, Johns Publishing Company, 1993. Information from Carolyn Luttrell. Added August 2001.
Pricing Structure chart from International Communications (a consulting firm), www.intlconsultrg.com/localiza.html. Information from a non-STC colleague, via email, December 2000.
Rubric’s Guide to Localization Management. 42-page guide with advice from localization managers at more than a dozen technology companies, available from www.rubric.com/local/guide.html. Posted February 2002.
Rubric ROI Reports address achieving greater return on investment for internationalization and localization in information technology. www.rubric.com/local/roireports.html. Source: Language Tech Net News, December 6, 2001, available by email to subscribers of MultiLingual Computing and Technology, www.multilingual.com. Added January 2002.
Programming for the World: A Guide to Internationalization, by Sandra Martin. Prentice Hall, 1993. Information from Carolyn Luttrell. Added August 2001.
Software Internationalization and Localization, by Robert Howard, Emmanuel Uren, and Tiziana Perinotti. John Wiley, 1993. Information from Carolyn Luttrell. Added August 2001.
XML Internationalization and Localization, by Yves Savourel. Sams, 2001.
Discussion lists on localization
NELOCSIG (North East Localization Special Interest Group): http://groups.yahoo.com/group/nelocsig/
“This group is designed to be an information sharing forum for people who are interested in localization, internationalization, and product globalization issues. (Historically, the group was started to support people in the North East United States, however, membership is worldwide.) “
“For people seeking jobs and for agencies/companies posting openings in the internationalization (I18N), localization (L10N) and globalization (G11N) industry.”
“This is a list for programmers and web programmers to discuss programming topics related to internationalization. Localization is occasionally discussed, but the primary topics are unicode, language dependent/independent input/output devices, operating system enhancements related to internationalization and other topics like this. There is no specific language, VB, Java, C++, C#, HTML, XML, SGML and all other programming languages and markup languages are fair game.”
“The only rules are to stay on topic and be civil.”
“This list is designed to act as an information sharing forum for people interested in .NET internationalization and localization issues.”
Localization lists added March 2005.
Websites on localization and internationalization
http://www.ardice.com/Computers/Software/Globalization/Mailing_Lists/ is a listing of web sites and links for email lists. Posted January 2005.
Common Sense Advisory www.commonsenseadvisory.com. Posted January 2005.
Localization Institute www.localizationinstitute.com. Posted January 2005.
Multilingual Computing www.multilingual.com. Posted January 2005.
ELECT Online, www.electonline.org, is a comprehensive source of information on localization jobs, news, events, and more. Posted May 2004.
www.microsoft.com/globaldev has information on software globalization for developers. On April 30, the articles (development category) included Authoring HTML for Middle East Content. Posted May 2002.
www.i18n.com has comprehensive information on internationalization, which may be read without registering. Posted May 2002.
Suite 101 (publishing community) page of links to information on localization: www.suite101.com/links.cfm/10609. Posted May 2002
International customer support
Atkinson, Toby D. Merriam-Webster’s Guide to International Business Communication: Your resource for conducting business around the world. 2nd ed. Merriam-Webster, 1999. Added January 2006
Rhind, Graham. Building and Maintaining a European Direct Marketing Database. Gower, 1994. Added January 2006
Rhind, Graham. Global Sourcebook of Address Data Management: A Guide to Address Formats and Data in 194 Countries. Gower, 1999. Added January 2006Added January 2006.
International graphic design
Dreyfuss, Henry. Symbol Sourcebook: An Authoritative Guide to International Graphic Symbols. [Reprint] Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1984. Added January 2006
Fernandes, Tony. Global Interface Design. A Guide to Designing International User Interfaces. Academic Press, 1995. Added January 2006
Horton, William. The Icon Book. Visual Symbols for Computer Systems and Documentation. John Wiley & Sons, 1994. Added January 2006
Lionbridge Technologies. Master Series: Designing a World Product. [Workbook]. Lionbridge Technologies, 2000. Added January 2006
Miller, Anistatia R; Brown, Jared M.; et al. Global Graphics: Symbols – Designing with Symbols for an International Market. Rockport Publishers, 2000. Added January 2006
Modley, Rudolf. Handbook of Pictorial Symbols: 3,250 Examples from International Sources. Dover Publications, 1976. Added January 2006
Peterson, L.K.; Cullen, Cheryl Dangel. Global Graphics: Color – Designing with Color for an International Market. Rockport Publishers, 2000. Added January 2006
Crystal, David. English As a Global Language. Cambridge University Press, 1997. Added January 2006
Crystal, David. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language. Reprinted with corrections, Cambridge University Press, 1999. Added January 2006
SimulTrans, L.L.C. “Writing for a Global Audience,” in ATA Chronicle, November/December 1998, p. 15-30. Added January 2006
Thrush, Emily. “Writing for an International Audience, Part I,” http://18.104.22.168/print_article.cfm/5381/32233, January 22, 2000. Added January 2006
Thrush, Emily. “Writing for an International Audience, Part II,” http://22.214.171.124/print_article.cfm/5381/32971, February 4, 2000. Added January 2006
Weiss, Edmon H. “Twenty-Five Tactics to ‘Internationalize’ Your English,” in Intercom, May 1998, p. 11-15. Added January 2006
International technical communication
Coe, Marlana. Human Factors for Technical Communications. Wiley Technical Communication Library, 1996. Added January 2006
Hoft, Nancy. International Technical Communication: How to Export Information about Technology. John Wiley, 1995. Added January 2006
Lionbridge Technologies. Master Series: Multilingual Content Management. [Workbook]. Lionbridge Technologies, 2001. Added January 2006
Microsoft Corporation. The Microsoft Manual of Style for Technical Publications. Microsoft Press, 1995. Added January 2006
Also, check out the annotated bibliography at www.world-ready.com/biblio.htm. Added January 2006
International user interface design
del Galdo, Elisa; Nielsen, Jakob [Eds.]. International User Interfaces. John Wiley, 1996. Added January 2006
Microsoft Corporation. The Windows Interface Guidelines for Software Design. Microsoft Press, 1995. Added January 2006
General user interface design books containing international sections
Bickford, Peter. Interface Design. AP Professional, 1997. Added January 2006
Calvo, Alex. Interface Design. Springer, 1996. Added January 2006
Cooper, Alan. About Face: The Essentials of User Interface Design. IDG Book, 1995. Added January 2006
Galitz, Wilbert, The Essential Guide to User Interface Design. Wiley Computer Publishing, 1997. Added January 2006
Mandel, Theo. The Elements of User Interface Design. Wiley Computer Publishing, 1997. Added January 2006
Microsoft Corporation. Microsoft Windows User Experience. Microsoft Press, 1999. Added January 2006
Microsoft Corporation. The Windows Interface Guidelines for Software Design. Microsoft Press, 1995. Added January 2006
Weinschenk, Susan et al. GUI Design Essentials for Windows 95, 3.1, Word Wide Web. Wiley Computer Publishing, 1997. Added January 2006
Improvement of French generation for the KANT machine translation system, a thesis by Eric Crestan, was completed in November, 2000 for the Diplôme de Recherche Technologique post-graduate degree in human-computer interaction, Institut Universitaire Professionnalisé (IUP), of the Université d’Avignon, France. This thesis was completed via an 18-month internship at the Center for Machine Translation of Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. The KANT system at Carnegie Mellon is a knowledge-based interlingual machine translation system developed to translate documents in controlled English sentences into a wide range of languages. Source: Jeffrey Allen, Chairperson and Examiner, Mason Integrated Technologies Ltd. (MIT2), firstname.lastname@example.org on TCF-GEN. Information from Fred Klein. Added August 2001.
Theoretical and Methodological Issues in Machine Translation Conference TMI-2002 proceedings: www.eamt.org/archive/tmi2002/. Added May 2002.
The machine translation mailing list, email@example.com has links to online machine translations at no charge. Information from Fred Klein, December 2000.
Machine Translation quarterly journal of the Association for Machine Translation in the Americas, 1201 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Suite 300, Washington, D.C. 20004 USA, 703-716-0912, AMTAinfo@att.net. Information from Fred Klein. Added August 2001.
Machine translation tools
Several web sites offering free online translation are reviewed and compared by Laurie Gerber, author of the column “Laurie’s Links” in Machine Translation News International. See the online archives www.eamt.org/resources/index.html. Information from Fred Klein, December 2000.
Compendium of Translation Software, compiled by John Hutchins, European Association for Machine Translation, 6th edition, 2003. www.eamt.org. Updated April 2003.
Global Sight’s Ambassador version 1.8 transforms a monolingual web site into a centrally managed multilingual and multicultural web presence. www.globalsight.com. Source: T News International, issue number 24, 2000. Information from Fred Klein. Added August 2001.
Netscape Communication offers AutoTranslate, allowing automatic translation of web pages via Alis Technologies Gist-in-Time online translation software. Free of charge for Netscape users. firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com. Source: T News International, issue number 24, 2000. Information from Fred Klein. Added August 2001.
Munich-based Linguatec Language Technologies, in collaboration with PONS dictionary publishers, have released an updated version of Personal Translator, PT 2000. Recent German spelling reforms have been incorporated. An English-language version is also available. www.personal-translator.de. Source: T News International, issue number 24, 2000. Information from Fred Klein. Added August 2001.
Linguatec Language Technologies has a free English-German dictionary online at www.linguadict.com, with more than 2 million words used in phrases and idioms. Called linguaDict, the dictionary is based on the dictionary in Personal Translator, PT . Source: Language Tech Net News, December 6, 2001, available by email to subscribers of MultiLingual Computing and Technology, www.multilingual.com. Added January 2002.
L&H offers Simply Translating Deluxe, which integrates with Microsoft Word and Corel WordPerfect software to provide seamless translation that preserves the original format. www.lhs.com. Source: T News International, issue number 24, 2000. Information from Fred Klein. Added August 2001.
The latest version of the Wordfast translation tool allows users to search the nine-million word Logos online dictionary in real time. The dictionary includes terms in 195 languages and dialects and is continually expanded by volunteer collaborators worldwide. www.logos.it. Source: Language Tech Net News, December 6, 2001, available by email to subscribers of MultiLingual Computing and Technology, www.multilingual.com. Added January 2002.
Harris, Philip R; Moran, Robert T. Managing Cultural Differences. Fourth edition. Gulf Publishing Company, 1996. Added January 2006.
Seelye, H. Ned. Culture Clash: Managing in a Multicultural World. NTC Publishing Group, 1996. Added January 2006.
Beyond Borders: Web Site Globalization, by John Yunker. New Riders, 2002. Added October 2002.
Beyond Global Websites: Guide to Language Tools from the Desktop to the Enterprise for Developing International Applications. Common Sense Advisory research report on the tools that help in authoring and modifying global content managed in corporate databases and content and document management systems. www.commonsenseadvisory.com. Added March 2005.
Eurescom. Multivolume report on multilingual web sites, 1999.
Volume 3 explains translation of web sites, including HTML, and identifies tools. Volume 1 is an overview. www.eurescom.de/public/projectresults/P900-series/923d1.asp. Added August 2002.
The Web Globalization Report Card 2005. http://bytelevel.com/reports/global2005/. Added May 2005.
Deitsch, Andy; Czarnecki, David. Java Internationalization. O’Reilly & Associates, 2001. Added January 2006.
Graham, Tony. Unicode: A Primer. M&T Books, 2000. Added January 2006.
Hall, P.A.V.; Hudson, R. [Eds]. Software Without Frontiers: A multi-platform, multi-cultural, multi-nation approach. John Wiley & Sons, 1997. Added January 2006.
International Language Engineering Corporation. Accent on Internationalization: Guidelines for Software Internationalization. International Language Engineering Corporation, 1996. Added January 2006.
Lionbridge Technologies. Master Series: Internationalizing Software Applications. [Workbook]. Lionbridge Technologies, 2001. Added January 2006.
Lunde, Ken. CJKV Information Processing. O’Reilly & Associates, 1999. Added January 2006.
Luong, Tuoc. V; Lok, James S., et al. Internationalization: Developing Software for Global Markets. John Wiley, 1995. Added January 2006.
O’Donnell, Sandra Martin. Programming for the World: A Guide to Internationalization. PTR Prentice Hall, 1994. Added January 2006.
Schmitt, David. International Programming for Microsoft Windows. Microsoft Press, 2000. Added January 2006.
Tuthill, Bill; Smallberg, David. Creating Worldwide Software: Solaris International Developer’s Guide, 2nd Edition. Sun Microsystems/Prentice Hall, 1997. Added January 2006.
Unicode Consortium, The. The Unicode Standard Version 3.0. Addison-Wesley, 2000. Added January 2006.
Uren, Emmanuel; et al. Software Internationalization and Localization: an Introduction. Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1993. Added January 2006.
Bing, John W. “The Use and Misuse of Questionnaires in Intercultural Training.” Online article, www.itapintl.com/useandmisuse.htm. Added December 2002.
ATA Chronicle. American Translators Association, 225 Reinekers Lane, Suite 590, Alexandria, Virginia 22134 USA, 703-883-6100, www.atanet.org. Information from Fred Klein. Added August 2001.
www.i18ngurus.com/docs/984813563.html has links to examples of problems that have occurred in translating colloquial English. Product names that do not translate well are included. Native speakers of US English will find these amusing and instructive. Posted May 2002.
Communicator, journal of the Institute of Scientific and Technical Communicators, Spring 2000 issue deals with translation. http://www.istc.org.uk. Information from Fred Klein, August 2000.
Microsoft online glossary of translated user interface terms: ftp://ftp.microsoft.com/developr/msdn/newup/glossary/. Posted May 2002.
Lingo Systems and Multilingual Computing. Guide to Translation and Localization: Preparing Products for the Global Marketplace. 5th ed. January, 2005. Available free of charge from Lingo Systems. www.lingosys.com. Added February 2003; updated March 2005.
How to Win at the Foreign Language Game. 75-page booklet with tips and facts about translation, available free from www.sh3.com. Added January 2002.
Technical Communicators Forum translation section has well-informed, practical stories and commentary from translators who have worked with machine translation, translation tools, and controlled language. www.tc-forum.org/selectio/content0.htm. Information from Fred Klein, September 2000.
Translation cost estimating tool. www.architext-usa.com > Services > G11 analyzer. Posted September 2005.
Translation: getting it right; a guide to buying translations. Booklet. Institute of Translation and Interpreting, London. www.iti.org.uk. Added August 2001.
www.opentag.com/tools.htm is a comprehensive list of translation tools. Posted May 2002.
The Savvy Client’s Guide to Translation Agencies. http://www.bytelevel.com/reports/savvy/2005.html. Updated May 2005.
International Writers’ Group. A Translator’s Toolbox for the 21st Century: A Computer Primer for Translators by Jost Zetzsche. This e-book is an expanded version of the well-received presentation Zetzsche conducted at the ATA conference in Atlanta in November 2002. www.internationalwriters.com/toolbox. Added February 2003.
WIRED magazine May 2000 issue includes a special section on translation. Subscription or back-issue requests, call +1 (800) SO WIRED, +1 (303) 945 1910 outside the US. Information from Fred Klein, August 2000.
Discussion lists on Unicode
The address to join the Unicode discussion list is http://www.unicode.org/unicode/consortium/distlist.html. Posted May 2002.
Websites on Unicode
Unicode 3.2 is accessible through www.unicode.org/unicode/reports/tr28/. If necessary, advance to the home page and from there, select the link to release 3.2. Posted May 2002.
The Unicode site, www.unicode.org, has frequently asked questions (FAQs) on many issues. Posted May 2002.
Alan Wood’s Unicode Resources comprehensively lists Unicode-related resources for software and fonts: http://www.alanwood.net/unicode/. Updated March 2005..
Windows NT and Windows 2000 offered support for Unicode, and support has advanced with Windows XP. A paper describing the development of Unicode support through versions of Windows may be found at: www.microsoft.com/globaldev/Presentations/unicode20/20-Unicode-WinXP.pdf. Posted May 2002.
A Unicode sample page illustrates the benefits of the method of encoding:
www.trigeminal.com/samples/Unicode.html. Posted August 2002.
For a detailed, and nicely structured, examination of the ISO Latin 1 characters, providing Unicode notations, numeric character references for HTML/SGML, ASCII, and other background information, see www.cs.tut.fi/~jkorpela/latin1/3.html. Posted March 2003.
ITC SIG Standards Project
The objectives of the ITC SIG Standards Project are to:
- Focus on producing technical publications for worldwide distribution.
- Support conformity to ISO and other standards.
- Support sharing of style sheets and other resources that enhance internationalization.
In the first phase of this project we will identify standards that affect internationalization, localization, and translation and provide links for more information about these standards.
TC Europe. Guidelines, Usable and safe operating manuals for consumer goods, http://www.tceurope.org/pdf/securedoc1_04.pdf.
ASD (Aerospace and Defence Industries Association of Europe, formerly European Association of Aerospace Industries or AECMA). ASD-STE100. ASD Simplified Technical English Specification (formerly AECMA Document PSC-85-16598. AECMA Simplified English).
http://www.asd-europe.org/. Source: Stan Green, Senior Member, Oklahoma Chapter.
ISO TC 37/SC 2. Technical Committee on terminography and lexicography. Standards include ISO 12616:2002 Translation-oriented terminography.
Source: Annette Reilly, Fellow, Washington DC Chapter, Chair STC Standards Council.
Society of Automotive Engineers International (SAE). J2450, Translation Quality Metric. J2450 applies to translation of automotive service information into any target language, regardless of the source language, method of translation such as human translation, computer-assisted translation or machine translation, or style and other requirements of particular media. Posted August 2005.
World Wide Web standards
Standards for the World Wide Web are established by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). STC is a Member organization within W3C. Neil Perlin (Associate Fellow, Boston Chapter) is the STC representative on the W3C Advisory Committee, which is composed of one representative from each Member organization.
Individual STC members can become involved in W3C working group activities, or monitor W3C activities and report to STC. Members who participate in working groups can not disseminate internal working group discussions to all STC members.
The W3C Internationalization Activity (http://www.w3.org/International/) aims to coordinate techniques, conventions, guidelines and activities within the W3C and with other organizations that allow use of W3C technology worldwide, with different languages, scripts, and cultures. The Activity has three Working Groups: Core, GEO (Guidelines, Education & Outreach), and ITS (Internationalization Tag Set).
Anyone can apply to join a working group, such as the Internationalization (I18N) Guidelines, Education & Outreach (GEO) Working Group, as an invited expert. Follow the links for more information: http://www.w3.org/International/geo/. Anyone can monitor the discussions at http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-i18n-geo.
Anyone can join the W3C Internationalization Interest Group. Follow the links from http://www.w3.org/International/ for instructions. Monitor the discussions at http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/www-international/.