Van Oostendorp, H., and de Mul, S. (Eds.) (1996), Cognitive aspects of electronic text processing. Norwood, N.J.: Ablex. 1996
Electronic Books: A Bad Idea - Jakob Nielsen's AlertBox (July 26, 1998)
How People Read on the Web - Jakob Nielsen's AlertBox (October 1, 1997)
Information Presentation on the Web: Unlearning 500 Years of Knowledge by Haim Levkowitz, Institute for Visualization and Perception Research, University of Mass, Lowell
LanguageHat - Aoccdrnig to a rscheearch at an Elingsh uinervtisy, it deosn't mttaer in waht oredr the ltteers in a wrod are, the olny iprmoetnt tihng is taht frist and lsat ltteer is at the rghit pclae. (September 13, 2003)
of Projected Information by Garry Musgrave, Conceptron Associates
Low Literacy Users - Jakob Nielsen's AlertBox (March 14, 2005)
Electronic Text, a report from Beta Research (complete
report requires purchase)
Reading Habits Study - Stanford Poynter Project
Printing the pages of an electronic book by Ivars Peterson
Study Details Online
News Reading Habits
Differences Between Print Design and Web Design - Jakob Nielsen's AlertBox
The Efficiency and Preference Implications of Scrolling versus Paging When Information Seeking in Long Text Passages - Clark Parsons' PhD dissertation, University of Northern Colorado, (2001)
Finding Information on the Web: Does Whitespace Matter? by M. Bernard, B. Chaparro, & R. Thomasson, Software Usability Research Laboratory, Witchita State University - "...users indicated that too little whitespace caused the layout to be too compact, and thus more difficult to read, whereas too much whitespace gave the layout an "empty" look and required extra scrolling."
Where Should You Put the Links? A Comparison of Four Locations
Fonts and Typography
Schriver, Karen in Dynamics in Document Design, page 274:
A study of fonts designed for screen display. Boyardski, D., Neuwirth, C., Forlizzi, J., & Regli, (1998).CHI 98 Conference Proceedings, 87-94.
How to match type size to readership - About.com Desktop Publishing site - Brief guidelines for selecting point size for different audiences.
Readability of Fonts in the Windows Environment Thomas S. Tullis, Jennifer L. Boynton, & Harry Hersh, CHI '95 Proceedings
So, What Size and Type of Font Should I Use on My Website? By M. Bernard & M. Mills, Software Usability Research Laboratory, Witchita State University, July 2000 - Research into readability, and preference in fonts for online reading. Arial and Times New Roman were tested at 10 and 12 points, aliased and non-aliased.
The Effect of Screen Size on Readability Using Three Different Portable Devices
Toward a standard font size interval system by Todd Fahrner, Verso - "This document discusses the strengths and weaknesses of various deployed and recommended methods of specifying font sizes in Web documents and application interfaces, and proposes a harmonization"
TypeArt Design Tips - a collection of typographical and typesetting tips, largely oriented towards print documents.
Type Books for the well-read typographer
Understanding web typography - an introduction by Jim Byrne. "In this article I attempt to cut a swathe through the complexities of Web typography; explain the possible pitfalls; and provide some guidelines for creating accessible and easy to read web pages." Posted on mcu.org.uk
The Visualizer - a tool from IDEO for exploring color contrast in text and background colors using the web palette.
Baecker, R., and Aaron M. (1990). Human Factors and Typography for More Readable Programs, Addision-Wesley, Reading, MA.
Gunning Fog Index
Flesch Reading Ease / Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level
McGraw-Hill's Fry Readability Graph - Edward Fry, formerly of the Rutgers University Reading Center, created one of the most widely used, and easy-to-use readability graphs for educators.
Readabilty Calculations - Readbility Plus software with many standard readability calculations, including readability formulas for Dale-Chall, Fry, Flesch Grade Level, Flesch Reading Ease, FOG, SMOG, FORCAST, Powers-Somner-Kearl, and Spache
Readability Studio - software provides readabiltiy scores for many standard readability calculations including Dale-Chall, Spache, Laesbarhedsindex (LIX), Powers, Sumner, Kearl, Automated Readability Index, SMOG, Flesh Reading Ease, Gunning Fog, New Fog Count, Coleman-Liau, FORCAST, Flesch-Kincaid, Fry Graph,Raygor Estimate Graph, McAlpine EFLAW